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                   MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING
                   DATED AS OF DECEMBER 3,1990
                                
                            among the
                                
                      DEFENDERS OF WILDLIFE
             THE IZAAK WALTON LEAGUE OF AMERICA, INC
                    NATIONAL AUDUBON SOCIETY
                  NATIONAL WILDLIFE FEDERATION
                                
                               and
                                
                    BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT
                     NATIONAL PARK SERVICE,
                 U.S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE
                      BUREAU OF RECLAMATION
                   DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE
                     DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
                     DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY
                         FOREST SERVICE
                                
                               and
                                
                  INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF
                   FISH AND WILDLIFE AGENCIES
 
 
I.    BACKGROUND
 
Various studies have shown that more than half of the American
public enjoys observing, studying or photographing wildlife.
Appreciative uses of wildlife are important aspects of American
outdoor life, enjoyed by families and individuals of all ages and
abilities.  The President's Commission on Americans Outdoors
recommended, in its 1986 Report and Recommendations to the
to President, that educators make the environment an integral
part of children's basic education. The Commission recommended
that Federal natural resource agencies engage in educational
activities to bring school children to the resource, where such
activities are not harmful to the watchable wildlife resource.
Moreover, President Bush's "America the Beautiful" initiative
charges Federal land management agencies to restore, protect and
enhance the natural resources and outdoor recreation
opportunities found on the lands and waters entrusted to their
care.  This program is also supported by President Bush's concept
of a "thousand points of light," as well as a number of other
educational and environmental initiatives, such as "Take Pride in
America," "Volunteers and Partnerships," and "Excellence in
Education."
 
 
II.    PURPOSE
 
The purpose of this Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) is to
provide a framework for cooperative activities necessary to
develop, implement, maintain, and enhance a Watchable Wildlife
Program on Federal and State lands, and to assist private
landowners.  The MOU will also specify the respective roles and
responsibilities of the cooperating organizations and agencies.
Such a cooperative arrangement has many benefits, including
enhanced educational opportunities, increased public
participation, and increased availability of resources.  This
agreement will enhance continuing efforts of public agencies and
private individuals to conserve our valuable wildlife heritage.
 
 
III.    AUTHORITY
 
This MOU is made and entered into by and among DEFENDERS OF
WILDLIFE, The IZAAK WALTON LEAGUE OF AMERICA, INC., NATIONAL
AUDUBON SOCIETY, and NATIONAL WILDLIFE FEDERATION, hereinafter
referred to as Defenders, IWLA, NAS, and NWF, respectively; and
the BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT
OF THE AIR FORCE, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY,
FOREST SERVICE, NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, and U.S. FISH AND WILDLIFE
SERVICE, hereinafter referred to as BLM, BR, DOAF, DOA, DON, FS,
NPS, and FWS, respectively; and the INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION
OF FISH AND WILDLIFE AGENCIES, hereinafter referred to as IAFWA,
under the provisions of the:
 
1.  BLM: Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976, 43
    U.S.C. _5 1701-1782 (1988); and Act approved Oct. 24, 1984,
    Pub.  L. No. 98-340, 98 Stat. 2718;
 
2.  BR: Water Resources Research Act of 1984, 42 U.S.C.  10302
    (1988);
 
3.  FWS: Fish and Wildlife Act of 1956, 16 U.S.C. _ 742f (1 988);
    Refuge Recreation Act, 16 U.S.C. g 460k-2 (1988), Fish and
    Wildlife Conservation Act of 1980, 16 U.S.C. __ 2901 et seq
    (1988); and Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act, 16 U.S.C. _
    661 (1988),
 
4.  NPS: National Park Service Organic Act of 1916, 16 U.S.C. _1
    (1988), _ General Authorities Act of 1970, 84 Stat. 825
    (codified as amended at __ 16 U.S.C. __ 1a-1, 1a-2, Ic
    (1988)); Outdoor Recreation Act of 1963, 16 U.S.C. __ 4601 to
    4601-3 (1988), and National Historic Preservation Act of
    1980, 16 U.S.C. 9_ 470 to 470w-6 (1988);
 
5.  FS: Multiple-Use Sustained-Yield Act of 1960, 16 U.S.C. __
    528-531 (1988); and Cooperative Funds Act of June 30, 1914,
    16 U.S.C. _ 498 (1988);
 
6.  DOA (Civil Works): Flood Control Act of 1944, 16 U.S.C. 760d
    (1988); and Federal Water Project Recreation Act of 1965, 16
    U.S.C. 4601-12 to 4601-21 (1988), and
 
7.  DOA (Installations, Logistics and Environment), DOAF and
    DON:  Sikes Act, as amended, 16 U.S.C. __ 670a-670f (1988).
 
 
IV.    INTRODUCTION
 
The participating parties to this agreement have responsibilities
or interests in enhancing opportunities for all members of the
public, including the physically impaired, to observe native
North American wildlife species in natural settings.  The parties
agree that increased effort should be made to: identify and
publicize wildlife viewing opportunities on Federal lands;
cooperate in providing facilities; provide interpretation of
wildlife biology and management; and ensure access to such sites,
where such activities are not harmful to wildlife or other
resources.  The parties further recognize and agree that a
cooperative approach should be followed whenever practical to
enhance watchable wildlife programs.
 
The participating State and Federal agencies have a variety of
responsibilities in managing their diverse lands.  Among these
are the responsibilities to manage important habitats for a
myriad of wildlife species within the United States and to ensure
the abundance and diversity of wildlife and their habitats.  Even
though these agencies have different mandates and policies, many
opportunities exist on lands managed by the participating
agencies to support the concept of the Watchable Wildlife
Program.
 
One of the many conservation objectives of Defenders, NAS, NWF,
and IWLA is to help perpetuate populations of wildlife on
suitable lands, both public and private, for the enjoyment of the
American people.  These organizations, therefore, desire to
participate with cooperating State and Federal agencies by
assisting In the development and implementation of Watchable
Wildlife Programs on Federal and State lands.
 
The IAFWA represents the interests of State wildlife agencies,
each of which has responsibility for and interests in promoting
Watchable Wildlife opportunities within their respective States.
The Association desires to cooperate in this initiative to
further ensure a partnership approach with the States to
establish a Watchable Wildlife Program.
 
In summary, it is the mutual belief of the signatories that
implementation of the MOU will:
 
  *  Provide enhanced opportunities to enjoy wildlife on Federal
     lands;
  *  Promote learning about wildlife and its habitat needs;
  *  Enhance active support of wildlife resource conservation by
     the American public,
  *  Enhance Federal and State wildlife management programs; and
  *  Help protect wildlife habitat and help prevent depletion of
     any fish and wildlife species.
 
NOW, THEREFORE, in consideration of the above premises, the
parties agree as follows:
 
 
V.    DEFENDERS, NAS, NWF, and IWLA:
 
1.  Shall designate a national representative from each
    organization to meet at least annually with representatives
    of each participating agency and organization to discuss and
    identify watchable wildlife objectives and activities to meet
    the purposes of this agreement.
 
2.  May enter into site-specific agreements or other appropriate
    agreements individually or collectively with the
    participating agencies to provide assistance or otherwise
    accomplish the agreed-upon work that will be developed
    pursuant to this agreement, including establishment and
    maintenance of Watchable Wildlife facilities.
 
 
VI.    The IAFWA:
 
1.  Shall act as liaison for State wildlife agencies in
    coordination with Federal agencies and conservation
    organizations concerning Watchable Wildlife activities and
    programs.
 
2.  Shall designate a national-level representative to facilitate
    coordination of Watchable Wildlife activities among various
    State wildlife agencies and meet annually with Federal
    agencies and conservation organizations to discuss Watchable
    Wildlife accomplishments to meet the purposes of this
    agreement.
 
 
VII.    THE BLM, BR, DOA, DOAF, DON, FS, NPS, and FWS:
 
1.  Shall make available, where appropriate, Federal lands for
    the furtherance of this program, subject to applicable
    Federal laws, regulations, policies, and land use and
    activity plans for the affected area, and subject to approval
    by an authorized official of the agency administering the
    area involved.
 
2.  Shall provide leadership for the planning, implementation,
    and monitoring of work 6dertaken pursuant to this agreement
    and supplemental to this agreement.
 
3.  Shall designate a representative for each agency and meet
    annually with representatives of participating agencies and
    organizations to discuss and seek to reach agreement on
    program proposals to meet the purposes of this agreement.
    The responsibility for organizing the meeting will be rotated
    on an annual basis among the cooperating parties.
 
4.  Shall provide to the cooperating organizations an annual
    summary of program accomplishments.
 
5.  Shall assume operation and maintenance and other management
    costs and responsibilities upon establishment of Watchable
    Wildlife areas located on respective agency lands or may
    enter into agreements with appropriate organizations for such
    operation and maintenance.
 
6.  May enter into site-specific agreements or other appropriate
    agreements, individually or collectively, with other parties
    to accomplish agreed-upon work that will be developed
    pursuant to this agreement.
 
7.  Shall coordinate planning for the Watchable Wildlife Program
    with appropriate State agencies.
 
8.  Shall monitor to the extent practicable the effects of public
    use of Watchable Wildlife sites.  Public use will be modified
    accordingly to avoid any unacceptable impacts to wildlife or
    other resources.
 
 
VIII.    IT IS MUTUALLY AGREED AND UNDERSTOOD BY AMONG THE SAID
         PARTIES THAT:
 
1.  This national-level agreement provides a policy framework for
    development of State and local-level agreements with
    participating organizations and agencies to accomplish
    specific Watchable Wildlife Program actions for the
    observation of native North American Wildlife species.
 
2.  Assistance to be provided by Defenders, NAS, NWF and/or IWLA
    to any of the participating agencies will be set forth in
    separate written agreements that specify the terms and
    conditions of such assistance.  These agreements will be
    signed by the responsible agency official and the authorized
    organizational representative of the cooperating
    organization.
 
3.  Assistance provided by the private organization(s) is
    intended to supplement State and Federal funding or services
    and this MOU does not, in any way, exclude Federal land
    management agencies from any requirements or responsibilities
    for management of Federal lands.
 
4.  Unless otherwise stated, all improvements placed on Federal
    agency lands as a result of this cooperative initiative shall
    become the property of the United States and shall be subject
    to the same regulations and administration of those lands as
    all other Federal improvements of a similar nature.
 
5.  The binoculars symbol (Wildlife viewing area sign RG-210)
    will be used to enhance nationwide visual recognition of
    designated Watchable Wildlife areas.
 
6.  This agreement in no way restricts the cooperating agencies
    and organizations from participating with other public and
    private agencies, organizations, and individuals; or from
    accepting contributions and gifts for the improvement,
    development, administration, operation, and maintenance of
    Watchable Wildlife areas; or from developing Watchable
    Wildlife areas on their own appropriate lands; or from using
    the binoculars symbol in wildlife viewing areas developed
    outside the context of this MOU.
 
7.  Nothing in this agreement shall be construed as obligating
    the United States to expend, contract for, or otherwise
    commit to the future payment of money.
 
8.  Nothing in this agreement shall be construed as obligating
    the participating nongovernmental parties to expend funds or
    provide resources or be involved in any obligation for future
    payment of money or providing or resources, except wherein
    provided by separate agreement as per this MOU.
 
9.  The Government's liability shall be governed by the
    provisions of the Federal Tort Claims Act (28 U.S.C. 2671-80)
 
10.  This agreement may be revised as necessary, by mutual
     consent of all parties and by the issuance of a written
     amendment signed and dated by all parties.
 
11.  Any party may terminate participation under this agreement
     by providing 60 days written notice.  Unless terminated by
     written notice of all parties, this agreement will remain in
     force for a period of 5 years but may be extended by
     participating parties.
 
12.  The parties shall not discriminate on the grounds of race,
     color, creed, sex, or national origin in the selection of
     participants for any work or program undertaken pursuant to
     this Agreement.
 
 
IX.  EFFECTIVE DATE
 
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties herto have executed this
agreement as of the date first written above.
 
                   DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
 
///signed///                                  12/3/90
Director                                      Date
Bureau of Land Management
 
///signed///                                  12/3/90
Commissioner                                  Date
Bureau of Reclamation
 
///signed///                                  12/3/90
Director                                      Date
National Park Service
 
///signed///                                  12/3/90
Director                                      Date
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
 
                    DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
 
///signed///                                  12/3/90
Chief                                         Date
Forest Service
 
                      DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE
 
///signed///                                  12/3/90
Acting Assistant Secretary of the Army        Date
(Civil Works)
 
///signed///                                  12/3/90
Assistant Secretary of the Air Force          Date
(Manpower, Reserve Affairs, Installations and Environment)
 
///signed///                                  12/3/90
Assistant Secretary of the Army               Date
(Installation, Logistics, and Environment)
 
///signed///                                  12/3/90
Assistant Secretary of the Navy               Date
(Installations and Environment)
 
                          ORGANIZATIONS
 
///signed///                                  12/3/90
President                                     Date
Defenders of Wildlife
 
///signed///                                  12/3/90
President                                     Date
International Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies
 
///signed///                                  12/3/90
Executive Director                            Date
The Izaak Walton League of America, Inc.
 
///signed///                                  12/3/90
President                                     Date
National Audubon Society
 
///signed///                                  12/3/90
President                                     Date
National Wildlife Federation